Attracted by a piece of today’s news, I found that this organization’s data is eye-catching (in 2021, the total foreign trade reached 6.6 trillion US dollars, an increase of 100 times over 20 years ago). So I checked this organization and found that it was in Shanghai.
What is Shanghai Cooperation Organization?
- 上合组织 (中文:上海合作组织，English: Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Russian: Шанхайская организация сотрудничества), referred to as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, ШОС).
- Established on June 15, 2001;
- It is a permanent intergovernmental international organization announced by the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People’s Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, and the Republic of Uzbekistan in Shanghai, China.
- Secretary-General Norov Vladimir Imamovich (January 1, 2019-)
- Permanent institutions: Secretariat of Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Anti-Terrorism Center.
- Supreme Conference: Council of Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
- Official languages: Chinese and RussianNumber of members: 8 member states, 4 observer states, 6 dialogue partners
- Rotating presidency: Russia (2019-2020)
- Secretariat location: Beijing, China
- Location of counter-terrorism agency Tashkent
- In 1996, the meeting mechanism of the five congresses in Shanghai was established; in January 2001, the “Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization” was signed;
- In January 2004, the Secretariat of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the regional anti-terrorist organization based in Tashkent were activated;
- On July 4, 2005, the “Declaration of the Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization” was signed;
- On June 11, 2010, the “Regulations on the Acceptance of New Members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization” and the “Rules of Procedure of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization” were approved.
- In 2014, the total GDP of the member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was approximately US$12.7 trillion ; as of 2020, the official website shows that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization includes 8 member states, 4 observer states, and 6 dialogue partners.
- On June 15, 2021, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization celebrates its 20th anniversary. As of now, the total economic volume of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization is close to 20 trillion US dollars, which is more than 13 times more than that at the beginning of its establishment. The total foreign trade volume has reached 6.6 trillion US dollars. The dollar has increased 100 times over 20 years ago.
- Chinese name Shanghai Cooperation Organization foreign name Шанхайская организация сотрудничества (Russian)
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (English) aliasThe Shanghai Cooperation Organization was established on June 15, 2001, Secretary-General Norov Vladimir Imamovich (January 1, 2019-)
Purpose of the organization
The Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Charter of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization stipulate the purposes and principles of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization:
- Strengthen mutual trust and good-neighborly friendship among member states;
- Maintain and strengthen regional peace, security and stability, and jointly combat terrorism, separatism and extremism, drug smuggling, illegal arms
- trafficking and other transnational crimes;
- Carry out cooperation in the fields of economy and trade, environmental protection, culture, science and technology, education, energy, transportation, finance, etc., promote the comprehensive and balanced development of regional economy, society, and culture, and continuously improve the living standards of the people of member countries;
- Promote the establishment of a democratic, fair and reasonable new international political and economic order;
- The main principles followed by the Shanghai Cooperation Organization are: to abide by the purposes and principles of the “United Nations Charter”;
- Mutual respect for independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, and non-use or threat of use of force against each other;
- All member states are equal;
- Equality and mutual benefit, resolve all issues through mutual consultation;
- Adhere to the principles of non-alignment, non-targeting against other countries and organizations, and opening to the outside world
- The Shanghai Cooperation Organization has two permanent bodies, namely: the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Secretariat and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Regional Anti-terrorist Organization. The Secretary-General of the permanent organization and the director of the Anti-Terrorist Organization Executive Committee are appointed by the Council of Heads of State.
The Secretariat has 30 staff. The secretary-general is assumed by the member states in rotation in Russian alphabetical order, and the term of office is 3 years without reappointment.
- Member States: China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, India
- Observer countries: Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran, Mongolia
- Dialogue partner countries: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Cambodia, Nepal, Turkey, Sri Lanka